XenophonXenophon of Athens (; , , ''Xenophōn''; – 354 BC) was an Athenian-born mercenary and historian. Xenophon was elected a commander of the Ten Thousand Greek mercenaries at the age of 30. Xenophon's ''Anabasis'' recounts adventures of Xenophon and the Ten Thousand in service of Cyrus the Younger, Cyrus's failed campaign to claim the Persian throne from Artaxerxes II of Persia, and the return of Greek mercenaries after Cyrus's death in the Battle of Cunaxa. Xenophon established precedents for many logistical operations, and was among the first to use flanking maneuvers and feints. As the military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge wrote, "the centuries since have devised nothing to surpass the genius of this warrior".
A student and a friend of Socrates, Xenophon recounted several Socratic dialogues - ''Symposium'', ''Oeconomicus'', ''Hiero'', a tribute to Socrates - ''Memorabilia'', and a chronicle of the philosopher's trial in 399 BC - ''Apology of Socrates to the Jury''. Xenophon is best known for his historical works. The ''Hellenica'' continues directly from the final sentence of Thucydides' ''History of the Peloponnesian War'' covering the last seven years of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) and the subsequent forty two years (404 BC - 362 BC) ending with the Second Battle of Mantinea.
Despite being born an Athenian citizen, Xenophon came to be associated with Sparta, the traditional opponent of Athens. Experience as a mercenary and a military leader, service under Spartan commanders in Ionia, Asia Minor, Persia and elsewhere, exile from Athens, and friendship with King Agesilaus II endeared Xenophon to the Spartans. Much of what is known today about the Spartan society comes from Xenophon's works - the royal biography of the Spartan king ''Agesilaus'' and the ''Constitution of the Lacedaemonians''.
Xenophon's works span several genres and are written in plain Attic Greek, which is why they have often been used in translation exercises for contemporary students of the Ancient Greek language. In the ''Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers'', Diogenes Laërtius observed that Xenophon was known as the "Attic Muse" because of the sweetness of his diction (2.6). Provided by Wikipedia